Lecture 7 -

Superorder – Protacanthopterygii

            Esociformes – Pikes and mudminnows;

Osmeriformes – Smelts, icefish, argentines etc.;

            Salmoniformes – Three major groups: Coregonid whitefishes, thymallid graylings and salmonid salmons.


3 Forms Diadromy:

1)      Anadromy – spawn fresh, juvs to salt, return to fresh to spawn (Salmon, Lampreys, Sturgeon, Herring, Arridae, smelts, cods, Sculpins, gobies, soles)

2)      Catadromy – Adults spawn at sea, juvs move to fresh for several years and return to sea to spawn. Anguillidae, Galaxiidae, Mullets, Centropomidae

3)      Amphidromy – Spawn fresh or salt; larvae migrate to other habitat for initial feeding and growth then return for more growth before spawning. (Herring, Galaxids, southern grayling, Sculpins, pipefish etc.)


Genetically distinct stocks – unique evolutionary units


Neoteleosts: Pharyngeal Retractor Muscle - retractor dorsalis – seven super orders.


Retractor dorsalis - Connects pharyngeal jaws w/ vertebral column.

Changed way vertebral column connects to skull.


Super order groups

1) Stenopterygii = Stomiiforms and Ateleopodiidae.

2) Cyclosquamata = Aulopiformes = pelagic & bathypelagic;

3) Scopelomorpha - Myctophiformes with 2 families; 35 genera & about 241 species;


ACANTHOMORPHA = True fin spines (not hardened rays) dorsal, anal and pelvic fins


4) Lampridiomorpha = open water oceanic include opahs and oarfish

5) Polymixiomorpha = beardfishes

6 ) Paracanthopterygii – major branch; Marine, benthic and nocturnal fishes; Caudal skeleton and holes in skull. About 1200 species – only 20 primitive are freshwater

            Percopsiformes - Troutperch (most advanced w/ adipose fin) etc.

            Ophidiiformes - Pearlfish and cusk eels.

Gadiformes - Cods, hake etc  – important commercial fishes in world – largest food fishery in world was for Pacific walleye Pollock > 6 million tons in 1989

Batrachoidiformes - Toadfish – some venomous (convergent with scorpionfish) and sound production

Lophiiformes = anglerfishes; Goosefish & frogfish (esca or lure used to mimic small fish) and batfish; males small and are parasitic on females.


7) Superorder Acanthopterygii – 13,500 species in 251 families – Three series.

            a) Ascending process of premaxilla and b) Pharyngeal dentition and action great


1) Mugilomorpha – mullets – 66 species, economically important;

            2) Atherinomorpha – Successful at surface of water.

                        a) Atheriniformes = silversides, rainbow fishes, 285 spp.;

                        b) Beloniformes = needlefishes, flying fishes

                        c) Cyprinodontiformes = Poeciliids – mollies, guppies, swordtails; Killifish, pupfish etc. – highly salt tolerant and extreme environments;

3)      Percomorpha - 12,000 species with anteriorly placed pelvic girdle connected to pectoral girdle directly or by a ligament;


Basal Orders

            Stephanoberyciforms (gibberfishes & whalefish)

            Bericiformes - orange roughy & squirrelfishes

            Zeiforms – John dories

            Gasterosteiforms –sticklebacks, sea horses. Sea moths, pipefish, sea dragons, - males become pregnant, also trumpetfish & cornet fish and shrimpfish

            Synbranchiforms – Swamp Eels. 

            Scorpaniformes – scorpionfish and rockfish; only freshwater = sculpins


Major group = Order Perciformes – 148 families and 9300 species

            Suborder Percoidei (many families) – 71 families with 2860 species – Follow Lab for Families to know


Order – Pleuronectiformes – pelagic symmetric larvae, metamorphose into adults that lie on bottom, Soles, flounders, halibut, tonguefishes.


Order - Tetradontiformes – triggerfish, filefishes, boxfishes, puffers, Mola Ocean Sunfishes