Lecture 7 -
Esociformes Pikes and mudminnows;
Osmeriformes Smelts, icefish, argentines etc.;
Salmoniformes Three major groups: Coregonid whitefishes, thymallid graylings and salmonid salmons.
3 Forms Diadromy:
1) Anadromy spawn fresh, juvs to salt, return to fresh to spawn (Salmon, Lampreys, Sturgeon, Herring, Arridae, smelts, cods, Sculpins, gobies, soles)
2) Catadromy Adults spawn at sea, juvs move to fresh for several years and return to sea to spawn. Anguillidae, Galaxiidae, Mullets, Centropomidae
3) Amphidromy Spawn fresh or salt; larvae migrate to other habitat for initial feeding and growth then return for more growth before spawning. (Herring, Galaxids, southern grayling, Sculpins, pipefish etc.)
Genetically distinct stocks unique evolutionary units
Neoteleosts: Pharyngeal Retractor Muscle - retractor dorsalis seven super orders.
Retractor dorsalis - Connects pharyngeal jaws w/ vertebral column.
Changed way vertebral column connects to skull.
Super order groups
1) Stenopterygii = Stomiiforms and Ateleopodiidae.
2) Cyclosquamata = Aulopiformes = pelagic & bathypelagic;
3) Scopelomorpha - Myctophiformes with 2 families; 35 genera & about 241 species;
ACANTHOMORPHA = True fin spines (not hardened rays) dorsal, anal and pelvic fins
4) Lampridiomorpha = open water oceanic include opahs and oarfish
5) Polymixiomorpha = beardfishes
6 ) Paracanthopterygii major branch; Marine, benthic and nocturnal fishes; Caudal skeleton and holes in skull. About 1200 species only 20 primitive are freshwater
Percopsiformes - Troutperch (most advanced w/ adipose fin) etc.
Ophidiiformes - Pearlfish and cusk eels.
Gadiformes - Cods, hake etc important commercial fishes in world largest food fishery in world was for Pacific walleye Pollock > 6 million tons in 1989
Batrachoidiformes - Toadfish some venomous (convergent with scorpionfish) and sound production
Lophiiformes = anglerfishes; Goosefish & frogfish (esca or lure used to mimic small fish) and batfish; males small and are parasitic on females.
7) Superorder Acanthopterygii 13,500 species in 251 families Three series.
a) Ascending process of premaxilla and b) Pharyngeal dentition and action great
1) Mugilomorpha mullets 66 species, economically important;
2) Atherinomorpha Successful at surface of water.
a) Atheriniformes = silversides, rainbow fishes, 285 spp.;
b) Beloniformes = needlefishes, flying fishes
c) Cyprinodontiformes = Poeciliids mollies, guppies, swordtails; Killifish, pupfish etc. highly salt tolerant and extreme environments;
3) Percomorpha - 12,000 species with anteriorly placed pelvic girdle connected to pectoral girdle directly or by a ligament;
Stephanoberyciforms (gibberfishes & whalefish)
Bericiformes - orange roughy & squirrelfishes
Zeiforms John dories
Gasterosteiforms sticklebacks, sea horses. Sea moths, pipefish, sea dragons, - males become pregnant, also trumpetfish & cornet fish and shrimpfish
Synbranchiforms Swamp Eels.
Scorpaniformes scorpionfish and rockfish; only freshwater = sculpins
Major group = Order Perciformes 148 families and 9300 species
Suborder Percoidei (many families) 71 families with 2860 species Follow Lab for Families to know
Order Pleuronectiformes pelagic symmetric larvae, metamorphose into adults that lie on bottom, Soles, flounders, halibut, tonguefishes.
Order - Tetradontiformes triggerfish, filefishes, boxfishes, puffers, Mola Ocean Sunfishes